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U.S. Victories in the Creek War
Battle of Tallushatchee

"Battle of Tallushatchee"
Library Photograph Collection

General John Coffee led mounted Tennesseans to their first victory over the Red Sticks at Tallushatchee, Alabama, on November 3, 1813.

Tennesseans fought in six major battles during the Creek War. On November 3, 1813, a force under Brigadier General John Coffee surrounded the Red Stick village of Tallushatchee and killed every warrior they could find, including some women and children. David Crockett claimed that "we shot them like dogs." On November 9, Jackson led his army into a similar rout of the Red Sticks at Talladega. Later that month, troops from East Tennessee attacked a tribe of Creeks known as the Hillabees. The Hillabees had made overtures of surrender to Jackson prior to the attack, but the East Tennesseans were unaware of this at the time of the battle. During a winter in which many of his men deserted due to enlistment controversies, Jackson once again took on the Red Sticks with a smaller army at Emuckfau (January 22, 1814) and Enitochopco (January 24, 1814), where he escaped a near-defeat. Red Stick casualties from these battles totaled several hundred, but this was nothing compared to the death toll they were to suffer at a site they called Tohopeka, but which European-Americans referred to as Horseshoe Bend.

William McIntosh

William McIntosh, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America, with Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes of the Principal Chiefs by Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall, 1836
Library Holdings

William McIntosh

William McIntosh, the son of a Scottish trader and a Creek mother, allied himself with the United States during the Creek War. He distinguished himself in several battles against the Red Sticks and at Pensacola. As the leader of the allied Creeks he was commissioned a brigadier general in the U.S. Army. In 1825, he negotiated a treaty with the United States, which ceded Creek land without the approval of the Creek Council. Treaty opponents, led by Menawa, executed McIntosh at his home.


Battle of Enotichopco

"Battle of Enotichopco"
Library Photograph Collection

General Andrew Jackson and his army were ambushed by Red Sticks while crossing Enotichopco Creek in Alabama. Jackson's army was able to repel the attack with artillery. Several Tennesseans, including General John Coffee, distinguished themselves in the battle.

Battle of Talladega

"Battle of Talladega"
Library Photograph Collection